5G NR Link budget calculator

This Page provides information about 5G NR Link budget calculator. Сalculator allows to calculate the maximum Link budget of 5G NR network depending on Cell Radius, gNodeB/UT configuration, Propagation model, attenuations, etc.

You can calculate the Link budget (Signal level at receiver) and then compare it with Rx Reception sensitivity. Then you will understand Radio Channel Status (Pass or Fail) and Cell Radius.

5G NR Link budget Visualization

The calculation is based on the  3GPP 38.901 standard. Approximately Link budget of 5G NR can be calculated using the formula:

5G NR Link budget

Found a mistake? Contact us!

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Comments 19
  • Great tools!!! Congrats!

    Are there more information how to derive the reception sencitivities for gNB and UT?
    I mean the particulary the noise figures and the demodulation thresholds (SINR) for the different Modulation schemes?


    • Dear, Andy S.

      You can calculate Receiver sensitivity like:
      Receiver sensitivity=Node B (or UT) Noise figure,dB +Thermal noise,dB (for Subcarrier configuration, transmission bandwidth etc.) +SINR, dB
      Noise figure(for NodeB and UT) and SINR -> vendor specific.
      It is confidential information from equipment vendor (Nokia, Huawei etc). You should to ask them 😉 Anyway

      For example you can use SINR = -6 for the slowest modulation and coding schemes
      And Noise figure=5


  • Dear Admin
    Do you have formula for 5G Propagation Model (3GPP 38.901)?
    I am very interesting with your calculator
    Thank you

    • Dear, Yetiawali
      You can download 3gpp file from here (click): 38.901 Propagation model
      Then find formula for 5G Propagation Model at Table 7.4.1-1: Pathloss models (Page 25)

      • Thank for your fast response.
        I found different formula for 5G LInk Budget like this.
        Path loss (dB) = gNodeB transmit power (dBm) – 10 x log10 (subcarrier quantity) + gNodeB antenna gain (dBi) – gNodeB cable loss (dB) – penetration loss (dB) – foliage loss (dB) – body block loss (dB) – interference margin (dB) – rain/ice margin (dB) – slow fading margin (dB) – body block loss (dB) + UE antenna gain (dB) – Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB).
        There are some parameter (Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB)) i can’t found above, do you have some articles about that parameter? Thank You

        • Dear, Yetiawali
          Formula that you found is same that we use in our 5G NR Link budget calculator.
          But in our calculation we use Reception sensitivity for gNodeB and UT.
          You can get Reception sensitivity for our calculator using this formula:
          Receiver sensitivity (dBm) = Noise figure (dB) + Thermal noise (dBm) + SINR (dB)
          Terminal noise = K (Boltzmann constant) x T (290K) x bandwidth*
          *bandwidth depends on bit rate, which defines the number of resource blocks (Subcarrier Quantity)
          Noise figure (vendor specific) depends on the frequency band,duplex separation and on the allocated bandwidth.
          SINR (vendor specific), The value depends on the modulation and coding schemes, which again depend on the data rate and the number of resource blocks allocated
          thermal noise gNodeB for 106 RB ( 20Mhz, 1272 Subcarrier Quantity) =-101 dBm
          Noise figure = 4 dB
          SINR =-7 (slowest modulation and coding schemes)
          Receiver sensitivity gNodeB (dBm)= 4 -101 -7 = -104 dBm

          • Thank for your fast response and discussion

          • Dear Admin
            Dou you have SINR table for 5G?
            Thank You

            • Dear Yetiawali

              SINR ->CQi->MCS is confidential information for Vendors equipment ( Huawei, Nokia.. etc)…

              We dont have it. You should ask vendor

              But anyway you can use this (As Is):
              QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 – SINR: -6 dB
              16QAM Spectral efficiency: 2.5703 -SINR 9 dB
              64QAM Spectral efficiency: 5.1152 -SINR 21dB
              256QAM Spectral efficiency: 7.4063 -SINR 35 dB


  • Thanks for all .
    in my understanding, link budget exercise is supposed to respond to the question :

    Given a desired receiver sensitivity,
    what is the required transmit power to attain a desired range?
    what is the attainable range for a given transmit power?

    i didn’t get the logic of calculation process in the above proposed methodology.

    Many thanks.

    • Dear, Lotfi Jemli!
      Logic of calculation process is simple
      If you need to understand:
      How many Base Stations ( gNodeB) do you need for 5G Coverage on territory? For any modulation
      ( for Example: QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 SINR: -6 dB, Throughtput ~ 6Mbit/s – 5Mhz, 1 layer, Area = 206 km^2 )
      1. You need to get Equipment configuration from Vendor – Transmit power etc.
      2. You should to calculate Reception sensitivity, dBm ~depend on SINR
      3. You should to understand – is it Urban, Rural territory (for propogation model)… etc
      and Area of territory in kilometers^2
      4. You should to change Cell Radius befor Radio Channel Status = Pass (not Fail)
      5. After this you get Cell Radius for your Calculation ( UL or DL)
      6.When you have Cell Radius (R) You can get Coverage for One 5G Base station area S =pi *R^2
      7. You can get number of gNodeB = (Area of territory in kilometers^2)/(Base station area S)
      It will save you money for At the time of 5G network deployment 🙂
      You can mail to me oleg.vinogradov@5g-tools.com
      If you have more questions

  • Dear Mr Oleg
    I am very interesting with your calculator .
    But i am still confuse about model propagation.
    Could you give me examples how to calculate UMi (urban microcells) for Micro urban/dense urban with formula at 38.901 Propagation model
    Thank for your attention

    • Dear, Jamper
      Imput data: UL, d2d = 25m, Centre frequency =3410 MHz gNodeB Antenna Height=3, UT Antenna Height=3
      d3d=d2d ( same Antenna Height)=25
      From 3GPP 38.901 UMi – Street Canyon LOS:
      PL = PL1 ( 10 < = d2d < dbp) or PL = PL2 ( dbp<=d2d <5km) dbp = 4 h'BS h'UT fc/c = 181 m ( h'BS= gNodeB Antenna Height- 1, h'UT= UT Antenna Height- 1) So ...PL = PL1 PL =PL1= 32.4+21*log10*(d3d)+20log10(fc)
      Pl =32.4+ 21*log10*(0.025)+20*log10(3410) = 69.41182776 dB


  • Hi, Great work but I have a question. For example if I have multiple bandwidth parts with different configurations then how can I do the link budget in this case?

    • Dear, Umar
      Link Budget depend on many factors:
      Main: frequency, bandwidth,Reception sensitivity (SINR) etc
      For 5G network in your case you should to use smallest SINR=-6 dB ( Or sinr for your throughput KPI, maybe SINR 9….), smallest frequency, smallest bandwidth… with better configuration for throughtput.

      This mean: if User can get service ( KPi for Dl throughput or UL throughput) Link budget is Ok….
      You have many bandwidth parts, but if one of them will work ( smallest frequency… etc. ) User is OK

  • I cannot find the used formula or the slow fading values on the referenced 3GPP document. Where did you get it from?


  • Good to study

  • If I find throughput UL/DL per Modulation and MSC table how is formula

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