 # 5G NR Link budget calculator

You can calculate the Link budget (Signal level at receiver) and then compare it with Rx Reception sensitivity. Then you will understand Radio Channel Status (Pass or Fail) and Cell Radius.

The calculation is based on the  3GPP 38.901 standard. Approximately Link budget of 5G NR can be calculated using the formula:

Update1: User interface and Channel Model Fix. Add Outdoor/Indoor mode

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• Andy S.

Great tools!!! Congrats!

Are there more information how to derive the reception sencitivities for gNB and UT?
I mean the particulary the noise figures and the demodulation thresholds (SINR) for the different Modulation schemes?

Regards
Andy

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Andy S.

You can calculate Receiver sensitivity like:
Receiver sensitivity=Node B (or UT) Noise figure,dB +Thermal noise,dB (for Subcarrier configuration, transmission bandwidth etc.) +SINR, dB
Noise figure(for NodeB and UT) and SINR -> vendor specific.
It is confidential information from equipment vendor (Nokia, Huawei etc). You should to ask them 😉 Anyway

For example you can use SINR = -6 for the slowest modulation and coding schemes
And Noise figure=5

Regard

• Yetiawali

Do you have formula for 5G Propagation Model (3GPP 38.901)?
I am very interesting with your calculator
Thank you

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Yetiawali
Then find formula for 5G Propagation Model at Table 7.4.1-1: Pathloss models (Page 25)
Regards

• Yetiawali

I found different formula for 5G LInk Budget like this.
Path loss (dB) = gNodeB transmit power (dBm) – 10 x log10 (subcarrier quantity) + gNodeB antenna gain (dBi) – gNodeB cable loss (dB) – penetration loss (dB) – foliage loss (dB) – body block loss (dB) – interference margin (dB) – rain/ice margin (dB) – slow fading margin (dB) – body block loss (dB) + UE antenna gain (dB) – Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB).
There are some parameter (Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB)) i can’t found above, do you have some articles about that parameter? Thank You

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Yetiawali
Formula that you found is same that we use in our 5G NR Link budget calculator.
But in our calculation we use Reception sensitivity for gNodeB and UT.
You can get Reception sensitivity for our calculator using this formula:
Receiver sensitivity (dBm) = Noise figure (dB) + Thermal noise (dBm) + SINR (dB)
where:
Terminal noise = K (Boltzmann constant) x T (290K) x bandwidth*
*bandwidth depends on bit rate, which defines the number of resource blocks (Subcarrier Quantity)
Noise figure (vendor specific) depends on the frequency band,duplex separation and on the allocated bandwidth.
SINR (vendor specific), The value depends on the modulation and coding schemes, which again depend on the data rate and the number of resource blocks allocated
Example:
thermal noise gNodeB for 106 RB ( 20Mhz, 1272 Subcarrier Quantity) =-101 dBm
Noise figure = 4 dB
SINR =-7 (slowest modulation and coding schemes)
Receiver sensitivity gNodeB (dBm)= 4 -101 -7 = -104 dBm
Regards

• Yetiawali

Thank for your fast response and discussion

• Yetiawali

Dou you have SINR table for 5G?
Thank You

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear Yetiawali

SINR ->CQi->MCS is confidential information for Vendors equipment ( Huawei, Nokia.. etc)…

We dont have it. You should ask vendor

But anyway you can use this (As Is):
QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 – SINR: -6 dB
16QAM Spectral efficiency: 2.5703 -SINR 9 dB
64QAM Spectral efficiency: 5.1152 -SINR 21dB
256QAM Spectral efficiency: 7.4063 -SINR 35 dB

Regards

• lotfi.jemli@gmail.com

Thanks for all .
in my understanding, link budget exercise is supposed to respond to the question :

what is the required transmit power to attain a desired range?
OR
what is the attainable range for a given transmit power?

i didn’t get the logic of calculation process in the above proposed methodology.

Many thanks.

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Lotfi Jemli!
Logic of calculation process is simple
If you need to understand:
How many Base Stations ( gNodeB) do you need for 5G Coverage on territory? For any modulation
( for Example: QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 SINR: -6 dB, Throughtput ~ 6Mbit/s – 5Mhz, 1 layer, Area = 206 km^2 )
1. You need to get Equipment configuration from Vendor – Transmit power etc.
2. You should to calculate Reception sensitivity, dBm ~depend on SINR
3. You should to understand – is it Urban, Rural territory (for propogation model)… etc
and Area of territory in kilometers^2
4. You should to change Cell Radius befor Radio Channel Status = Pass (not Fail)
5. After this you get Cell Radius for your Calculation ( UL or DL)
6.When you have Cell Radius (R) You can get Coverage for One 5G Base station area S =pi *R^2
7. You can get number of gNodeB = (Area of territory in kilometers^2)/(Base station area S)
It will save you money for At the time of 5G network deployment 🙂
You can mail to me oleg.vinogradov@5g-tools.com
If you have more questions
Regards

• lotfi jemli

Many Thanks Mr Oleg. it’s clear

• jampen

Dear Mr Oleg
I am very interesting with your calculator .
But i am still confuse about model propagation.
Could you give me examples how to calculate UMi (urban microcells) for Micro urban/dense urban with formula at 38.901 Propagation model

• Umar

Hi, Great work but I have a question. For example if I have multiple bandwidth parts with different configurations then how can I do the link budget in this case?

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Umar
Link Budget depend on many factors:
Main: frequency, bandwidth,Reception sensitivity (SINR) etc
For 5G network in your case you should to use smallest SINR=-6 dB ( Or sinr for your throughput KPI, maybe SINR 9….), smallest frequency, smallest bandwidth… with better configuration for throughtput.

This mean: if User can get service ( KPi for Dl throughput or UL throughput) Link budget is Ok….
You have many bandwidth parts, but if one of them will work ( smallest frequency… etc. ) User is OK
Regards

• Anonymous

I cannot find the used formula or the slow fading values on the referenced 3GPP document. Where did you get it from?

Regards

• arttyv1

Good to study

• arrtyv1

If I find throughput UL/DL per Modulation and MSC table how is formula

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Arrtyv1!
MCS ( based on 3GPP 38.214 Table 5.1.3)
You should to use https://5g-tools.com/5g-nr-throughput-calculator/
Then you should to change Q(j)m modulation order and Rmax in 5g-nr-throughput-calculator (Value depends on the type of coding from 3GPP 38.214,38.212)
Where Rmax = (Target code Rate (MCS:3GPP 38.214 Table 5.1.3)) / (1024)

P.S. MSC depend on SINR… And you can get link budget for your throughput
QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 – SINR: -6 dB
16QAM Spectral efficiency: 2.5703 -SINR 9 dB
64QAM Spectral efficiency: 5.1152 -SINR 21dB
256QAM Spectral efficiency: 7.4063 -SINR 35 dB

Regards

• arttyv1

How is find power at enodeB dBm (Top RRU) and
2MIMO per port(dBm)
4MIMOper port(dBm)
8MIMOper port(dBm)
32MIMOper port(dBm)
64MIMOper port(dBm)

• Telegonz

Hello, i calculated pathlosses for 28 GHz for UMa and RMa, and i got larger distances in the case of UMa vs the case of RMa, using the same parameters, which doesn´t makes sense to me. i´m i missing something? thank you!

• OlegV@5GTools

It was mistake in our calculator, we fixed it at the last update
Regards

• Jack

Hello,
pathloss models only consider LOS. 3GPP defined pathloss models for NLOS. Could you include them here too?
There are fixed amount losses for NLOS in this webpage. Does this way fo calauclation match with values derived from 3GPP NLOS pathloss models?
Thanks

• OlegV@5GTools

edit…
Dear, Jack!
Fix, At the last update we added NLOS
Regards

• Jack

Thank you very for the reply.
I used RMa model to calculate path loss at 740MHz for distance from 20m to 1km. The pathloss curve follows exactly free space pathloss pattern but it’s always 0.6 ~ 0.7 dB better than free space path loss model. Is it expected? I thought free space pathloss model should give the smallest pathloss value for given frequency and distance. UMa also gives path loss better than free space up to the distance of 240m. is it also expected?

Thanks

• OlegV@5GTools

It was mistake in our calculator, we fixed it at the last update

Regards

• Hosni

Many thanks Mr.Oleg this is very useful.
I am just confused about sub carrier quantity, is there a table for it?
Regards
Hamdi H

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Horsni
Subcarrier Quantity (for TX power correction) = Number of used RB * Number of Subcarrier per RB
It is mean number of subcarrier that we use for transmission. We need it for TX power correction…
We added Subcarrier Quantity Auto-Calculation at the last update, you just need to add numbers of RB
Regards

• Hosni

God evening Mr Oleg,
I am wondering if you can help explaining more about the calculation of thermal noise and add an examlpe.
Kind Regards
Hamdi H

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, Hosni!
Terminal noise =-174+10log(“bandwidth” Hz), Bandwidth depend on number of RB.
Example for 1 RB µ:15kHz: -174+10*LOG10(180000) = -121,4472749 dB
Example for 2 RB µ:15kHz: 174+10*LOG10(360000) = -118,436975 dB
Regards

• El Psy Kongroo

Hi Thanks for the tool.

Seems that you assign all tx power to a single channel/receiver. But I guess the real world is not like that, and only some portion of total bandwidth and power is assigned to a channel. The tool might be more useful to me if you can model with channel bandwidth calculating from subcarrier spacing and number of RBs.
I still appreciate today’s tool though.

• OlegV@5GTools

Dear, El Psy Kongroo
We add it last update 🙂 Just Use
Regards

• OlegV@5GTools

Update 1: We updated the user interface and Fix Channel Model. Add Outdoor/Indoor mode for calculation
If you have any problem with new interface, just inform us
Regards
5G-tools Team