5G NR Link budget calculator

This Page provides information about 5G NR Link budget calculator. Сalculator allows to calculate the maximum Link budget of 5G NR network depending on Cell Radius, gNodeB/UT configuration, Propagation model, attenuations, etc.

You can calculate the Link budget (Signal level at receiver) and then compare it with Rx Reception sensitivity. Then you will understand Radio Channel Status (Pass or Fail) and Cell Radius.

5G NR Link budget Visualization

The calculation is based on the  3GPP 38.901 standard. Approximately Link budget of 5G NR can be calculated using the formula:

5G NR 4G LTE NB-IoT Link budget

Update1: User interface and Channel Model Fix. Add Outdoor/Indoor mode

Update2: Fix Transmit power parameter for more accuracy calculation

Update3: Add DL (SSB SSS Power for RNP RSRP design level) mode, you should to use it with 5G NR SSB SSS Power Calculator

Found a mistake? Contact us!

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NB-IoT: NB-IoT Link budget calculator

Comments 61
  • Great tools!!! Congrats!

    Are there more information how to derive the reception sencitivities for gNB and UT?
    I mean the particulary the noise figures and the demodulation thresholds (SINR) for the different Modulation schemes?


    • Dear, Andy S.

      You can calculate Receiver sensitivity like:
      Receiver sensitivity=Node B (or UT) Noise figure,dB +Thermal noise,dB (for Subcarrier configuration, transmission bandwidth etc.) +SINR, dB
      Noise figure(for NodeB and UT) and SINR -> vendor specific.
      It is confidential information from equipment vendor (Nokia, Huawei etc). You should to ask them 😉 Anyway

      For example you can use SINR = -6 for the slowest modulation and coding schemes
      And Noise figure=5


  • Dear Admin
    Do you have formula for 5G Propagation Model (3GPP 38.901)?
    I am very interesting with your calculator
    Thank you

    • Dear, Yetiawali
      You can download 3gpp file from here (click): 38.901 Propagation model
      Then find formula for 5G Propagation Model at Table 7.4.1-1: Pathloss models (Page 25)

      • Thank for your fast response.
        I found different formula for 5G LInk Budget like this.
        Path loss (dB) = gNodeB transmit power (dBm) – 10 x log10 (subcarrier quantity) + gNodeB antenna gain (dBi) – gNodeB cable loss (dB) – penetration loss (dB) – foliage loss (dB) – body block loss (dB) – interference margin (dB) – rain/ice margin (dB) – slow fading margin (dB) – body block loss (dB) + UE antenna gain (dB) – Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB).
        There are some parameter (Thermal noise power (dBm) – UE noise figure (dB) – demodulation threshold SINR (dB)) i can’t found above, do you have some articles about that parameter? Thank You

        • Dear, Yetiawali
          Formula that you found is same that we use in our 5G NR Link budget calculator.
          But in our calculation we use Reception sensitivity for gNodeB and UT.
          You can get Reception sensitivity for our calculator using this formula:
          Receiver sensitivity (dBm) = Noise figure (dB) + Thermal noise (dBm) + SINR (dB)
          Terminal noise = K (Boltzmann constant) x T (290K) x bandwidth*
          *bandwidth depends on bit rate, which defines the number of resource blocks (Subcarrier Quantity)
          Noise figure (vendor specific) depends on the frequency band,duplex separation and on the allocated bandwidth.
          SINR (vendor specific), The value depends on the modulation and coding schemes, which again depend on the data rate and the number of resource blocks allocated
          thermal noise gNodeB for 106 RB ( 20Mhz, 1272 Subcarrier Quantity) =-101 dBm
          Noise figure = 4 dB
          SINR =-7 (slowest modulation and coding schemes)
          Receiver sensitivity gNodeB (dBm)= 4 -101 -7 = -104 dBm

          • Thank for your fast response and discussion

          • Dear Admin
            Dou you have SINR table for 5G?
            Thank You

            • Dear Yetiawali

              SINR ->CQi->MCS is confidential information for Vendors equipment ( Huawei, Nokia.. etc)…

              We dont have it. You should ask vendor

              But anyway you can use this (As Is):
              QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 – SINR: -6 dB
              16QAM Spectral efficiency: 2.5703 -SINR 9 dB
              64QAM Spectral efficiency: 5.1152 -SINR 21dB
              256QAM Spectral efficiency: 7.4063 -SINR 35 dB


  • Thanks for all .
    in my understanding, link budget exercise is supposed to respond to the question :

    Given a desired receiver sensitivity,
    what is the required transmit power to attain a desired range?
    what is the attainable range for a given transmit power?

    i didn’t get the logic of calculation process in the above proposed methodology.

    Many thanks.

    • Dear, Lotfi Jemli!
      Logic of calculation process is simple
      If you need to understand:
      How many Base Stations ( gNodeB) do you need for 5G Coverage on territory? For any modulation
      ( for Example: QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 SINR: -6 dB, Throughtput ~ 6Mbit/s – 5Mhz, 1 layer, Area = 206 km^2 )
      1. You need to get Equipment configuration from Vendor – Transmit power etc.
      2. You should to calculate Reception sensitivity, dBm ~depend on SINR
      3. You should to understand – is it Urban, Rural territory (for propogation model)… etc
      and Area of territory in kilometers^2
      4. You should to change Cell Radius befor Radio Channel Status = Pass (not Fail)
      5. After this you get Cell Radius for your Calculation ( UL or DL)
      6.When you have Cell Radius (R) You can get Coverage for One 5G Base station area S =pi *R^2
      7. You can get number of gNodeB = (Area of territory in kilometers^2)/(Base station area S)
      It will save you money for At the time of 5G network deployment 🙂
      You can mail to me oleg.vinogradov@5g-tools.com
      If you have more questions

  • Dear Mr Oleg
    I am very interesting with your calculator .
    But i am still confuse about model propagation.
    Could you give me examples how to calculate UMi (urban microcells) for Micro urban/dense urban with formula at 38.901 Propagation model
    Thank for your attention

  • Hi, Great work but I have a question. For example if I have multiple bandwidth parts with different configurations then how can I do the link budget in this case?

    • Dear, Umar
      Link Budget depend on many factors:
      Main: frequency, bandwidth,Reception sensitivity (SINR) etc
      For 5G network in your case you should to use smallest SINR=-6 dB ( Or sinr for your throughput KPI, maybe SINR 9….), smallest frequency, smallest bandwidth… with better configuration for throughtput.

      This mean: if User can get service ( KPi for Dl throughput or UL throughput) Link budget is Ok….
      You have many bandwidth parts, but if one of them will work ( smallest frequency… etc. ) User is OK

  • I cannot find the used formula or the slow fading values on the referenced 3GPP document. Where did you get it from?


  • Good to study

  • If I find throughput UL/DL per Modulation and MSC table how is formula

    • Dear, Arrtyv1!
      MCS ( based on 3GPP 38.214 Table 5.1.3)
      You should to use https://5g-tools.com/5g-nr-throughput-calculator/
      Then you should to change Q(j)m modulation order and Rmax in 5g-nr-throughput-calculator (Value depends on the type of coding from 3GPP 38.214,38.212)
      Where Rmax = (Target code Rate (MCS:3GPP 38.214 Table 5.1.3)) / (1024)

      P.S. MSC depend on SINR… And you can get link budget for your throughput
      QPSk Spectral efficiency: 0.2344 – SINR: -6 dB
      16QAM Spectral efficiency: 2.5703 -SINR 9 dB
      64QAM Spectral efficiency: 5.1152 -SINR 21dB
      256QAM Spectral efficiency: 7.4063 -SINR 35 dB


      • How is find power at enodeB dBm (Top RRU) and
        2MIMO per port(dBm)
        4MIMOper port(dBm)
        8MIMOper port(dBm)
        32MIMOper port(dBm)
        64MIMOper port(dBm)

  • Hello, i calculated pathlosses for 28 GHz for UMa and RMa, and i got larger distances in the case of UMa vs the case of RMa, using the same parameters, which doesn´t makes sense to me. i´m i missing something? thank you!

  • Hello,
    pathloss models only consider LOS. 3GPP defined pathloss models for NLOS. Could you include them here too?
    There are fixed amount losses for NLOS in this webpage. Does this way fo calauclation match with values derived from 3GPP NLOS pathloss models?

  • Thank you very for the reply.
    I used RMa model to calculate path loss at 740MHz for distance from 20m to 1km. The pathloss curve follows exactly free space pathloss pattern but it’s always 0.6 ~ 0.7 dB better than free space path loss model. Is it expected? I thought free space pathloss model should give the smallest pathloss value for given frequency and distance. UMa also gives path loss better than free space up to the distance of 240m. is it also expected?


  • Many thanks Mr.Oleg this is very useful.
    I am just confused about sub carrier quantity, is there a table for it?
    Hamdi H

    • Dear, Horsni
      Subcarrier Quantity (for TX power correction) = Number of used RB * Number of Subcarrier per RB
      It is mean number of subcarrier that we use for transmission. We need it for TX power correction…
      We added Subcarrier Quantity Auto-Calculation at the last update, you just need to add numbers of RB

  • God evening Mr Oleg,
    I am wondering if you can help explaining more about the calculation of thermal noise and add an examlpe.
    thank you in advance.
    Kind Regards
    Hamdi H

    • Dear, Hosni!
      Terminal noise =-174+10log(“bandwidth” Hz), Bandwidth depend on number of RB.
      Example for 1 RB µ:15kHz: -174+10*LOG10(180000) = -121,4472749 dB
      Example for 2 RB µ:15kHz: 174+10*LOG10(360000) = -118,436975 dB

  • Hi Thanks for the tool.

    Seems that you assign all tx power to a single channel/receiver. But I guess the real world is not like that, and only some portion of total bandwidth and power is assigned to a channel. The tool might be more useful to me if you can model with channel bandwidth calculating from subcarrier spacing and number of RBs.
    I still appreciate today’s tool though.

  • Update 1: We updated the user interface and Fix Channel Model. Add Outdoor/Indoor mode for calculation
    If you have any problem with new interface, just inform us
    5G-tools Team

  • plz how to get slow fading margin?There’s is something equation?


  • what is the bandwidth in thermal noise?
    channel bandwidth?

    • Dear, Sarah
      Yep, but “channel bandwidth” not completely correct. “Bandwidth of used RB” will be better.
      For example: if you use BW:20MHz FR1 µ:15kHz. but only 2 RB ( not full 106 RB in 20 Mhz) for transmission, this mean that channel bandwidth=2(RB)*15000*12 =360000 Hz

  • Hi,

    How can I have the coverage comparison between 5G frequency bands (eg. 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz) using this calculator?

    Many thanks!

    • Dear, CEO
      Just change Centre frequency then get largest cell radius where Radio Channel Status: Pass
      For example ( defaut parameters):
      Urban UL 3410 Ghz Outdoor -> Cell Radius 350m
      Urban UL 28000 Ghz Outdoor -> Cell Radius 115 m
      Regards, Oleg

  • Hi

    I need full link budget calcation formula, full path loss formula

  • Transmit power
    per Subcarrier, dBm how to calucalte

    • Dear, Vijay Anand
      Transmit power per Subcarrier, dBm = 10*log10 (Transmit power.,mW /Subcarrier Quantity) or
      Transmit power per Subcarrier, dBm = Transmit power. dBm -10*log10(Subcarrier Quantity)
      Regards, Oleg

  • Dear Oleg,
    I have a question regarding the path loss number estimated according to 3GPP TR 38.901. I used the following data:
    Frequency – 24300 MHz
    Cell radius – 180 meter
    Base antenna height – 10 meter
    UE antenna height – 1.5 meter
    5G Propagation Model (3GPP 38.901): Urban Micro 3D-Umi LOS + NLOS
    Path loss estimated by the calculator: 131.5 dB
    Free space path loss estimated by the classical formula 10*LOG ((4 x π x d x f / c)^2) is 105.2 dB
    Why so much difference 26.3 dB, it’s even not near?
    Is path loss of the calculator equal free space path loss or it’s something else?

    • Dear, Samat!
      I will try to answer on your question(Frequency – 24300 MHz,180 meter, Htx=10m,Hrx=1.5):
      Free space path loss (ITU-R P.525-4)=10*LOG ((4 x π x d x f / c)^2) = 20*log10(d,km)+20*log10(f,Mhz)+32.44 = 105.2 dB
      Urban Micro 3D-Umi LOS + NLOS path loss (3GPP TR 38.901.):
      LOS: PL1 (10m < d(2d) < dbp (1458m)) = 32.4+21*log10(d,m)+20*log10(f,GHz) = 107.472 dB ( like Free space path loss, but some more 🙂 ) NLOS: PL =35.3*log10(d,m)+22.4+21.3*log(f,Ghz)-0.3*(Hrx-1.5)=131.5245331. (At NLos scanarion PL=Max (NlosPL, losPL)), 131>107
      LOS result not interesting,
      because its like Free space. For mobile better to use NLOS… So we use NLOS at our calculator like result
      Oleg V.

  • Hi,
    Why there are 2 different path losses in your calculator (propagation Model PL and Full PL) and how come are they having a big difference in values? The reason I’m asking this question is, if I want to calculate the cell radius, the 2 values which are driven from different formulas should be very close. In other words, the PL which could be easily obtained from the given values of everything in the system such as TX, gains, losses and margins, should be very close to the one obtain by the propagation model formula in order to correlate them and then calculate the cell radius. stevenasr@hotmail.com

  • Hi,
    How did you calculate the Signal level at receiver? I’m trying the EIRP minus PL but not getting it.


    • Dear, Steve Nasr
      Link Budget Received Signal = EIRP-PathlossPropogationModel-Penetrationloss-foliageloss-bodyloss-interference margin-rainicemargin-slowfading-penetrationloss-Attenuation
      Regards, Oleg

  • Hi, Do you intend to add NR DL Power calculator (SSB and DMRS); I am interested to see the difference between 64T vs 32T MMIMO configuration

  • Hey,

    1) In other words this link budget provides the maximum distance within which a certain throughput or QoS can be delivered at cell edge to 1 user considering theoretical attenuations from the clutter type – is this correct?

    2) What is the difference between a traditional 4G vs. 5G NR link budget

    3) Do you have the 5G NR Link Budget tool in Excel format? Can you share that?

    4) Do you have the 5G NR throughput in Excel format? Can you share that?

    I can provide my personal email.

    Many thanks,

    • Dear, Federico!
      1) Yes, but some remark: Throughput depends on MCS (modulation type of coding). MCS depends CQI, CQI depends on SINR. To use our calculator you should to understand what SINR for your Throughput do you need
      2) Power and bandwidth of channel ( for examle: SSS EPRE Power for 5G, vs EPRE CRS LTE)
      3)+ 4) Just javascripts on site… based on 3GPP formulas without Excel
      Regards, Oleg

  • Hello,

    Is Transmit power (for TX Bandwidth), dBm , Total Tx power or power per antenna port?

  • Hi, what is the function of subcarrier quantity? is it only for calculating tx power per subcarrier? i tried to calculate and i didnt see it was included to the link budget calculation beside affecting thermal noise which is based on bandwidth

    • Sorry for late response. You are absolutly right
      “Subcarrier quantity” is used only for:
      1. Receiver sensitivity
      2. Transmit power per Subcarrier.
      At old version of 5G NR Link budget calculator we used it for Tx power correction (depend on RRU power and number of used RB), but we got so many mistakes. At this version You should to add Transmit power (for TX Bandwidth), dBm. “Subcarrier quantity” only for Receiver sensitivity.
      Regards, Oleg

  • I was expecting adjustments made to antennae heights having an effect the link budget derivation. I suspect the prescribed cell radius entry is an overriding factor to its influence. I would expect the two slope (LOS,NLOS) pathloss model derivation to be reflective of such changes as well. Are my assumptions here correct or am I totally off the mark?

  • Hi Oleg, How you calculate shadow fading margin?

  • Hi everyone !
    I need your help to understand more the explanation above. I didn’t understand the method you used to calculate de receiver sensitivity. Is it possible to detail it more ?
    Thank you

  • Hi Oleg.

    I’m wondering that how can I calculate SINR values for different Link Budget (dBm) in 5G 28 Ghz?
    I wanna configure my own scenario and I need SINR values to calculate throughput for each user inside the cell that is UMa. ı will use Shannon channel capacity model. Thanks.

  • Does the calculator cater for SISO situation when use in repeater case?

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